This website is dedicated to topics related to punchmarks as criteria for the classification of early Italian paintings in terms of attribution, chronology, and workshop relationships. Comments will also be given to the role of gold tooling as an integral part of pictorial aesthetics in medieval painting.

This site, established in December 2008, will be developed gradually as a reference source for sphragiology (Gr. sphragis = stamp, cf. the existing term "sphragistics" for the particular study of seals).




Left: The classic reference publication, Vols. I-II (1994), revised version in progress


Below: Recent publication (2013).


For all other publications, see Bibliography







Editor: Erling S. Skaug, professor emeritus, University of Oslo (Norway).


For inquiries: e-mail esskaug [at] online.no


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